'Australian government should be favourable to 'uncontroversial' Afghanistan troop request'? Why should we send more citizens to die for no reason other than...

“There are no safeguards provided by nature against employment of thoroughly inappropriate concepts by communities who are self-harming, apparently wilfully, but actually without realising it.”
The Future of Strategy, Colin S. Grey, 2015

"KABUL, Afghanistan — The sermon at the mosque in Kabul’s diplomatic quarter on Friday sounded a familiar but disquieting theme.

“You have disrespected the feelings of 1.8 billion Muslims and all that they hold sacred,” the imam, Muhammed Ayaz Niazi, bellowed, addressing the American forces in Afghanistan. “Those who have committed this grave crime are trying to test our people, to see if they are dead or alive. We promise to defend our values, defend our religion, defend our soil.”

This time, the rage was over a leaflet dropped on homes in Parwan Province, north of Kabul, on Tuesday night. The postcard- sized leaflets showed a lion, representing the American-led coalition forces, chasing a dog, an animal seen as dirty in Islamic tradition, wrapped in the Taliban flag.

The problem? The writing on the flag, in large letters, is the text most sacred to Muslims: the shahada, the foundational declaration of faith in God."

Afghan Anger Simmers Over U.S. Leaflets Seen as Insulting Islam, NYT, By MUJIB MASHAL, FAHIM ABED and FATIMA FAIZI, SEPT. 8, 2017

When you fight a civil war within another cultures space you are fighting for the continuing existence of both value systems which exist in that space the one you believe you are fighting against and the one you believe you are fighting for, as inevitably the flag (ethics social/political method) both wrap themselves in are derived from the exact same values social/political method cultural source, which invariably determines you the enemy to be exploited and destroyed in the very same codex to which both sides of the civil war adhere.  

You are not fighting to defend your own values systems, 'Girls going to school.' for even if such a framework survives the underlying cultural categories will still apply. Education has a positive affect but not in the way you own culture envisages, you have just made a culture more effective in delivering their worldview not yours. You see research determines it is the mothers who have a great deal to do with the level of their children's aggression and women despite the negative constructs relative to men tend to be greater devotees of a cultures faith-ideology.

 "Children’s voices are heard “Defend Islam don’t be an infidel”"
Flawed Justice After a Mob Killed an Afghan Woman, New York Times, by Pulitzer Prize winner ALISSA J. RUBIN, DEC. 26, 2015

"The man was living in Melbourne on a bridging visa at the time of the wedding, having fled Myanmar as an asylum seeker."

Groom 'turned his nose up at' authorities by marrying child bride after warnings, court hearsBy Emma Younger, ABC, 20/9/2017

This is what Western soldiers are fighting and dying for, the right of a culture to continue to deliver a worldview proven by research and commonsense to be significantly different than their own, nothing less nothing more.

It is a subconscious act on the part of the US military establishment determining the flag they are fighting against is the exact same flag they are fighting for. As in Vietnam it is a war which can never be won by a Western culture as it exists now, and there lies the danger, acceptance of the unacceptable, terror and the related blasphemy paradigm as normative-prescriptive within Western civilisations streets. A complete disaster-failure becomes victory- and the Western policy elite are preparing the ground to declare victory over the wasted sacrifice of fellow citizens and massive redirection of wealth better invested elsewhere.

"Former Chief of Army Peter Leahy, who now heads Canberra University's National Security Institute, said the new approach was an improvement and would "give them a chance to win but it won't happen quickly".
"Potentially this is decades," he said. "It's not going to be a military victory. That's the best element of the strategy is he's talking not just about military but diplomatic and economic power as well.""
Donald Trump's Afghanistan strategy could see Australia asked to send more troops,  
David Wroe, AUGUST 23 2017

"win" = be victorious in, triumph in, take first prize in, achieve success in, be successful in, prevail in..

I preface my argument by stating I stand against any culture secular or religious systemically delivering terror-genocide against Other even my own. I reject the notion religion is not politic, as it is a clear contradiction of reality historic and current.

"Religious thought does not exist in a vacuum; it both shapes politics and is shaped by politics." 

Understanding Japan: A Cultural History, Professor Mark J. Ravina, Emory University, 2015

"Religions, especially, historically as well as currently, are recognized to be chronically implicated in this discord and violence, directed at those beyond their artificially defined boundaries of theological doctrine, and, as often, towards those claiming common religious identities but who have fragmented into sectarian factions and conflict (Mlodinow 2012, 164)."

"MOSUL, Iraq (AP) — Even as the Islamic State group’s rule is being torn down in Iraq, the seeds are there for it — or a successor extremist group — to rise again one day.

It’s a disquieting fact: There are those among Iraq’s Sunni Muslim minority who find some good in the group, though they denounce the militants for suffering inflicted during their nearly three-year rule.

Listen to the words of a young Iraqi who was impressed by an Islamic State cleric — a compassionate man, Mowafy Abdul-Qader said, recalling his “sweet demeanor” as he gave lessons on Shariah law.
“He taught me like he was an angel from heaven. He was accurate and righteous,” Abdul-Qader said, speaking at a camp for Iraqis driven from their homes during the past year’s fighting to uproot the militants in northern Iraq. “Because of people like him, I sometimes felt I was actually living in a real caliphate.”

In nearly two dozen interviews with Sunnis living in the camps of the displaced, The Associated Press heard many variations on the same theme: IS was too brutal and individual members were corrupt, but its goals to restore morality and faith were worthy.........

But then he, like almost all the others interviewed, said he supported in principle the group’s imposition of dress codes for women in public, saying it boosted public morality. Before the militants came, women in Mosul sometimes dressed unacceptably, including wearing pants, Abdul-Qader lamented.

School headmaster Mohammed Jassim said IS revived interest in religion, getting people to learn more about prayer, fasting and charity. “Young men filled the mosques after years of religious decline,” he said.

But “the actions of many of them ran contrary to what they preached,” he said.

“They taught people a great deal about our religion,” said another camp resident, Abed Hamad. He said people began to read and debate Hadeeth, the stories and sayings of the prophet Muhammad that alongside the Quran are used as a basis of Islamic law.

Several praised the group’s poets and singers of religious anthems called “anasheed” in Arabic. The songs were played at kiosks known as “media centers” in IS-held areas, accompanied by videos of fighting and militants killing captives or suspected spies.

IS “anasheed” extolled the virtues of jihad, ridiculed enemies and eulogized fallen fighters, all in the elevated poetic language of traditional religious hymns.

Those songs are among the traces IS left behind, and new followers might one day rally round them, much as neo-Nazis embrace Nazi regalia and white nationalists fly Confederate flags.

In one camp for the displaced, a 9-year-old boy could sing an anthem off the top of his head. It was a light-hearted children’s tune, but with bloody lyrics listing cities the militants captured: “The soldiers of the caliphate are brave, the army of the heretics ran away, and now we have Fallujah, Mosul and Tikrit.”"
Iraq’s Sunnis wrestle with militants’ religious legacy, AP, By HAMZA HENDAWI, 29-8-2017

I can make an empathic prediction with relative certainty, victory will not be achieved in decades or centuries in Afghanistan and can make an emphatic comment, shaping policy by promising a 'win'-victory where one is not possible, or a victory which bears no resemblance to the values Australian citizens, if they were actually made aware would be willing to die for, or accept the unfathomable grief such loss brings, strikes me to say the least as a severe  error of judgement. Particularly as there is no evidence provided to validate such a claim as 'win'-victory in a sense any Australian would believe worth dying for or sacrificing their children to, in fact I would argue there is sufficient evidence to determine such a claim has no basis in fact.

In Vietnam Australia found as did the US they were not fighting for their values of freedom from tyranny as they both perceived they had in WWI and WWII they were fighting and dying to protect the resident South Vietnamese cultures social/political elites values social/political method which turned out to be diametrically opposed to the Australian-US definition of peace, freedom and prosperity.

Both Australia and the US are making exactly the same mistake in Afghanistan and elsewhere and will suffer the exact same fate, wasted precious citizens lives and wealth to protect an in situ culture whose ethical-moral-value-belief social/political method rational are not only diametrically opposed to the Western notions of peace, freedom and prosperity, the same cultural rational determines the Australian and US cultures inherently evil and necessarily, justifiably should be subject to terror-genocide. Which the continuing insider attacks attest as a fact not fiction.

It is argued by some in time surely such a culture will with the guidance of, and on observing the moral fortitude and benefits of a secular democratic multicultural society will change its behaviour, for is it not the case these cultures holding archaic, medieval, notions which in time cannot stand against the modern? We are assured it will take decades of course but victory will be achieved, cultural behavior will not revert as it has before when we left the political/social/geographical space after our well won victory.

To say a "win", "be victorious" will be achieved without military victory in my view is the same logic as determining you do not need a plug to keep water in a bathtub.
                                           Human Aspiration Trilogy

There is a Human Aspiration Trilogy Peace (Absence of War), Freedom (Absence of Tyranny) and Prosperity (Absence of Poverty), I ask our Former Chief of Army Peter Leahy in regards to this Trilogy what does this "win" as he clearly declares as possible with an absence of military victory will look like for the Afghan people? And more importantly is it a vision worthy of the sacrifice of fellow Australians and of their wealth potentially better spent elsewhere?

Evidence Peter Leahy this 'win' can actually occur with or without a military victory so Australian lives will not be wasted upon the altar of your false hope?

Reality Check:

“For whatever psychology has, or has not, established, it is certain that the thoughts and actions of men are in great measure determined by their thoughts and actions in the past. ..
A nation, like man, is the creature of its past.”
THE REVOLUTIONARY IDEA IN FRANCE, 1789-1871, By Lord Elton, 1923.

'''Democracy is like a streetcar. When you come to your stop, you get off.'' Erdogan
The Erdogan Experiment, NYT, By DEBORAH SONTAG, MAY 11, 2003

"Even then, many distrusted his transformation. ''He's saying all the right things about Europe and moving westward,'' an American diplomat told me, ''but I fear he's like a wolf in sheep's clothing.'' Those who knew him well, though, took him at his word. ''He wanted to change the system, but the system changed him,'' said Rusen Cakir, one of Erdogan's biographers. Alaton said he had no concerns that Erdogan was a closet fundamentalist. ''He came to power partly because he had this religious platform, but he knows it's a dead end. He knows confrontation with the bureaucracy on religion would break him.'' One Turkish lawyer put it to me more cynically: ''He believes in profits, not prophets.''"
The Erdogan Experiment, NYT, DEBORAH SONTAG, MAY 11, 2003

'The mosques are our barracks, the domes our helmets, the minarets our bayonets, and the believers our soldiers.” Erdogan, December 1997

"From September Turkey will have a new education curriculum and this 38-year-old mother is among many parents who are worried. The changes affect first, fifth- and ninth-grade students, and the main controversy surrounds the exclusion of the theory of evolution from secondary education.
"In classes, nine- and 10-year-old students have been memorising prayers from the Koran. I believe religious education should be given at home, not in schools," said the woman, who did not want to be named, due to security concerns.
Other controversial changes include shortening the time allocated to studying the life of Turkey's secularist founder Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, an introduction to the concept of jihad and more classes on religion."
Are Turkey’s schools dropping evolution and teaching jihad?By Selin Girit
BBC News, Istanbul, 22 August 2017

"The first research of its kind to probe the practice within this tightly knit South Asian community, the study found that 80 per cent of Dawoodi Bohra women surveyed have undergone FGM and two of the study’s 18 Canadian participants said it happened within Canada’s borders."
Women in small Muslim sect say they have had FGM in Canada

"Children’s voices are heard “Defend Islam don’t be an infidel”"

" Hundreds of other men watched, holding their phones aloft to try to get a glimpse of the violence, but never making a move to intervene. Those standing by included several police officers.

..then the enraged men below her picked up poles and planks of wood, and hit at her until she lost her grip and tumbled down.

Her face bloodied, she struggled to stand. Holding her hands to her hair, she looked horrified to find that her attackers had yanked off her black hijab as she fell. The mob closed in, kicking and jumping on her slight frame….
Children’s voices are heard “Defend Islam don’t be an infidel”
Men deliberate “What to do with the body.
Overturned Verdict
“If it’s violence, who is responsible for this violence? The guy who started the episode and encouraged the people to hit her? The guy chanting slogans who encouraged the people? Was it a blow from a stick that killed her? A stone? Was it that she was burned, or was it the car running over her?””

Flawed Justice After a Mob Killed an Afghan Woman, New York Times, by Pulitzer Prize winner ALISSA J. RUBIN, DEC. 26, 2015

"My faith is a completely a nonviolent faith." 
Muslim woman in her 40s
5. Terrorism and concerns about extremism, PEW Research, JULY 26, 2017

"Our religion teaches us never to kill or to hurt others. Islam teaches us peace, not violence. ... 
Real Muslims are not violent or bad.” – Muslim woman over 60" Muslim woman over 60
5. Terrorism and concerns about extremism, PEW Research, JULY 26, 2017 

Quran: Surah 8 Al-Anfal - The Spoils of War
12 "Remember thy Lord inspired the angels (with the message): 'I am with you: give firmness to the believers: I will instil terror into the hearts of the unbelievers: smite ye above their necks and smite all their fingertips off them. '

14 "Thus (will it be said): 'Taste ye then of the (punishment) for those who resist Allah, is the penalty of the fire. '

15 "O ye who believe! When ye meet the Unbelievers n hostile array, never turn your backs on them."

17 "It is not ye who slew them; it was Allah: when thou threwest (a handful of dust) it was not thy act, but Allah's: in order that He might test the Believers by a gracious trial from Himself: for Allah is He who heareth and knoweth (all things)."

22 "For the worst of beasts in the sight of Allah are the deaf and the dumb – those who understand not."

23 "If Allah had found in them any good, He would indeed have made them listen: (as it is), if He had made them listen, they would but have turned back and declined (faith)."

29 "O ye who believe! If ye  fear Allah, he will grant you a criterion (to judge between right and wrong), remove from you (all) evil (that may afflict) you, and forgive you: for Allah is the Lord of grace unbounded."

37 "In order that Allah may separate the impure from the pure, with the impure, one on another, heap them together, and cast them into Hell. They will be the ones to have lost."

38 "Say to the unbelievers, if (now) they desist (from unbelief), there passed would be forgiven them; but if they persist, the punishment of those before him is already (a matter of warning for them)."

55 "For the worst of beasts in the sight of Allah of those who reject him: they will not believe."

56 "They are those with whom thou didst make a covenant, but they break their covenant every time, and they have not the fear (of Allah)."

59 "Let not the unbelievers think that they can get the better (of the godly): they will never frustrate (them)."

60 "Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into (the hearts of) the enemies of Allah and your enemies, and others besides, whom ye may not know, but whom Allah doth know. Whatever ye shall spend in the cause of Allah, shall be repaid unto you, and ye shall not be treated unjustly."

65 "O Prophet! Rouse the Believers to fight. If there are twenty amongst you, patient and persevering, they will vanquish two hundred: if hundred, they will vanquish a thousand of the Unbelievers: for these are people without understanding."

66 "For the present, Allah hath lightened your (task), for He knoweth that there is a weak spot in you: but (even so), if there are hundred of you, patient and persevering, they will vanquish two hundred, and if a thousand, they will vanquish two thousand, with the leave of Allah: for Allah is with those who patiently persevere."

67 "It is not fitting for a Prophet that he should have prisoners of war until he had thoroughly subdued the land. Ye look for the temporal goods of this world; but Allah looketh to the Hereafter: and Allah is Exalted in might, Wise."

74 "Those who believe, and adopt exile, and fight for the Faith, in the cause of Allah as well as those who give them asylum and aid – these are (all) in very truth the Believers: for them is the forgiveness of sins and the provision most generous."

Quran: Surah 9 At-Tawbah The Repentance
1. "A (declaration) of immunity from Allah and his messenger, to those of the Pagans with whom ye have contracted mutual alliances –

2. Go ye, then, for four months, backwards and forwards, (as ye will), throughout the land, but know ye that ye cannot frustrate Allah (by your falsehood), but that Allah will cover with shame those who reject Him.
3. And an announcement from Allah and his Messenger, to the people (assembled) on the day of the Great Pilgrimage – that Allah and His Messenger dissolve (treaty) obligations with the Pagans. If then ye repent, it were best for you; but if ye turn away, know ye that ye cannot frustrate Allah. And proclaim a grievous penalty to those who reject Faith.
4. But the treaties are) not dissolved with those pagans with whom ye had entered into alliance and who have not subsequently failed you in aught, nor aided anyone against you. So fulfill your engagements with them to the end of their term: for Allah love of the righteous.
5. But when the forbidden months are past, then fight and slay the Pagans wherever you find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem (of war). But if they repent, and establish regular prayers and practice regular charity, then open the way for them: for Allah is oft Forgiving, Most Merciful."

The reality of such Muslim dissimulations and explicit denunciation of non-Believers after each statement to honor treaties and alliances with completely standalone justification and authorisation of grievous harm drives a Muslim terror truck through any claims of  Muslim claims of "peace, not violence". For the proof lies explicitly in the absence of, and subjugation-terror of Other in any Muslim dominated space, as well as terror visited upon any space Muslims have access to. 

“Although religious hostilities affect countries throughout the world experience, Muslim-majority countries consistently have higher levels of a range of religious hostilities than other countries and by wide margins. For instance, Muslim-majority countries are more than three times more likely than other countries to have religion-related war, terror or sectarian violence, ...”Pew Research 2012 

The quotes from the Quran above determine whatever statements may be made also with determining alliances

Are the cultural values Australians will be defending worthy of their sacrifice?

"..children raised in religious households, who are perceived to be more empathetic and sensitive to justice, are in fact less altruistic to their own class mates .... children from religious households also differ in their ratings of deserved punishment for interpersonal harm (F(2, 847) = 5.80, p < 0.01, h2 = 0.014); this was qualified by significantly harsher ratings of punishment by children from Muslim households than children from non-religious households (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between children from Christian households and non-religious households.".
The Negative Association between Religiousness and Children’s Altruism across the World, November 05, 2015 

Are the cultural development processes ratcheting up aggression, violence and terror Australians will be defending worthy of their sacrifice?

And so what do you do when you are confronted with evidence which significantly contradicts your worldview, of course you accept the evidence and change your worldview, and would not be so foolish as to persist in shaping damaging, even dangerous public policy outcomes? Alas even if we are skeptical and for good reason we continue down the same cultural wave path.

"Another problem was overcoming the president's skepticism that winning in Afghanistan was even possible."
A divide over US Afghan strategy, By GREG JAFFE AND PHILIP RUCKER | The Washington Post | Published: August 5, 2017

It is a
‘skepticism’ that even a 'half pager' knows implicitly is justified, dig up British Field Marshall Lord Roberts K.P. V.C. who will assure you the ‘skepticism’ is warranted. Trump's reaction is a sign of innate intelligence not stupidity, at least in one sphere.

I will explain, as it appears there is a mistaken impression by some that excessive amounts of potential power, soft or hard, held by a culture necessarily will translate into a successful outcome utilising any strategy lying around in a dusty cupboard.

"We must not be fooled by its (Islamic State-IS) hype. Its ideology is archaic, its use of the internet is very modern. ISIL (IS) has any more smartphones than guns, more twitter accounts than fighters." Malcolm Turnbull Australian Prime Minister, 2015

Cultures do not care if you think their ideological constructs are 'archaic', 'antiquated' 'contradict' or 'modern' they are as they are and will remain informing a cultures behavioural variance, inclusive of the knowing or unknowing dissimulating good and the altruists they systemically create to deliver terror-genocide, until the codex ideological constructs are deleted from a social/political space.

The cultural codex ideological constructs remain the behaviour remains. The failure of the absurd logic regards 'archaic' is to ask how old is the concept of Democracy is it older than the Islamic/Muslim codex constructs equalling as they must terror-genocide? In the past Islamic/Muslim culture had more Egyptian papyrus than swords and fighters, so what were Other spared? Is it not the specific unchanging cultural codex motivating content rather than the mode or speed of communication the real threat?

Social Psychology let alone history, or mere observation determines as a truth, allow a culture's Architect and Builder, a cultures codex (text and exemplar (messianic) template) and birth to death development process, systemically informing infamy across time and space, to remain in a social/political space by only dealing with the symptom, the cultures altruistic enforcers/punishers/aligners, declaring victory as each cultures altruist is 'defeated', 'contained', 'neutralised' is dangerous delusion as the culture dissimulates, adapts, discovers, improvises, overcomes-flows around and back into the social/political space utilising the same cultural justification, authorisation and adapted analogised method of dealing with Other.

"The Taliban controls places like Helmand, where the US and UK troops fought their hardest battles, pushing the drive toward peace and progress into reverse"
The war America can't win: how the Taliban is regaining control in Afghanistan, theguardian, by Sune Engel Rasmussen in Lashkar Gah, 3 August 2017

"..politics provides the enabling mechanism for community action.

Violence organised or other, always everywhere has some political meaning."

The Future of Strategy, Colin S. Grey, 2015

Ones child trafficker is another's parents school bus driver.

"The authorities told the AP that the children (27 boys between the ages of 4 and 15) were being taken to Pakistani madrassas to educate a new generation in the ways of the Taliban, with the intention of returning them to Afghanistan to enforce the same rigid interpretation of Islam practiced by the radical religious movement until its ouster by U.S.-led coalition forces in 2001.
The police called it child trafficking and threw the drivers and the only other adults, two men who organized the convoy, into jail.

But the parents said they wanted their children to study in Pakistan and had willingly sent them to Quetta, the capital of Pakistan’s sparsely populated Baluchistan province on the border with Afghanistan."
Officials: Young Afghans trafficked to study under Taliban, AP, 1-8-2017

Although most of humanity would like to believe as human biology determines humanity as one, humanity can therefore be as one in peace and harmony, the reality is categorically, as the burning buildings, broken bodies and lives attest, a complete fallacy. This alas is the truth:

Biology Determines Our Human Hands Have the Same Constituent Parts as Other.
Culture Determines Our Human Hands Will Inform Differing Outcomes for Other.

"The use of force and violence is more commonplace and prevalent in some families, communities, religions, cultural/ethnic groups and societies based on the views and values about adult prerogatives with children espoused. They may also be based upon the sociopathy of the perpetrators."
Treatment of Complex Trauma Courtois/Ford 2016

"The Pakistani government has “failed to take significant action” to prevent those groups from threatening American and Afghan forces in neighboring Afghanistan, the State Department said last week in a report on terrorism."
Sharif’s Resignation Comes as U.S. Debates How to Pressure Pakistan on Terrorism, NYT, By HELENE COOPER, JULY 28, 2017

"In the first place, ideologies (culture) provide a perspective, or 'lens', through which the world is understood and explained. People do not see the world as it is, but only as they expect it to be: in other words, they see it through a veil of ingrained beliefs, opinions and assumptions. Whether consciously or subconsciously everyone subscribes to a set of political beliefs and values that guide their behaviour and influence their conduct. Political ideas and ideologies thus set goals that inspire political activism. .... a, unifying set of political ideas and values can develop naturally within society, or it can be enforced from above in an attempt to manufacture obedience and exercise control. The clearest examples of such 'official' ideas have been found in fascist, communist and religious fundamentalist regimes."
Source: Political Ideologies Andrew Heywood 2012

"To-day psychology alone, and priori, before we had approached the evidence, would predispose us to expect these conclusions. For whatever psychology has, or has not, established, it is certain that the thoughts and actions of men are in great measure determined by their thoughts and actions in the past.
A nation, like man, is the creature of its past."

THE REVOLUTIONARY IDEA IN FRANCE, 1789-1871, By Lord Elton, 1923.

"Local officials in Faryab and Ghor provinces confirmed Taliban insurgents seized control of Kohistan district in Faryab and Taywara district in Ghor after engaging in fierce gunfights with security forces in the past 24 hours."

Taliban Seize Two Key Districts in Ghor and Faryab Provinces, TLO, By Sayed Sharif Amiri 23 JULY 2017

When we were young we learnt when building sand castles at the seaside the forces inherent in the ocean tide meant nothing in time would be left standing, we would have to go back and rebuild again and again. Although we clearly learnt from this experience if the underlying forces driving the behavior of the oceans are not altered it is a wasted effort and delusional to believe our sand castles will remain in place however well designed, yet some of us continue to believe cultural behavior against Other inherent in a cultures development process underwritten by their cultural codex (textual and exemplar (messianic) template) will change if we continue to build sand castles in their political/social physical geographic space.  

It is the same logic as determining the ocean will respect the fact we have spent our energy building the sandcastle and be our friend and respectfully withdraw to a safe distance. The tragedy of this delusion is the relative cost of building and destruction of our early sandcastles by the ocean tide bares no comparison to the terrible cost the families, communities and a nations citizens have to endure again and again by sending their own into a cultures maelstrom of terror-genocide against Other.

A maelstrom for we attempt to build the sandcastle not on partially dry sand but in the midst of a tide flowing in both directions as cultures with inherent terror-genocide constructs of Other such as the Muslim culture flow from one side to the other around the Islamic/Muslim normative ethics-morals-beliefs and method, not simply our own ethics etc being reflected back at us from one end of the Muslim behavioral variance where even those Muslims doing so in time will join the flow against Other actively or by their silence, not for Other.
Change the Architect and Builder or Change Nothing, as we continue to support the very culture informing our demise.

Kim Beazley (Former Australian defence minister and ambassador to the United States) says government should be favourable to 'uncontroversial' Afghanistan troop request,
SMH, Fergus Hunter, 12-5-2017

'uncontroversial' Afghanistan troop request?

Why should we send more citizens to die for no reason other than to hold to a lie the 'moderate' peaceful and law abiding of a culture-religion are not responsible for the continuing violence-terror in Afghanistan, and even our own streets, against Other and even their own?  

A lie underwriting policy which means there is only ever a lull between declared victory of 'eradication' of the cultural 'few' threat and the inevitable resumption of violence as the so called 'moderate' peaceful and law abiding of a culture-religion create more of the 'few' to start once again.


"Religious thought does not exist in a vacuum; it both shapes politics and is shaped by politics."
Understanding Japan: A Cultural History, Professor Mark J. Ravina, Emory University, 2015

""Since the first Central Intelligence Agency paramilitary teams entered Afghanistan in November 2001, 2,350 service members have given their lives and almost $900 billion in taxpayers' money has been spent. Meanwhile, the country is less politically stable and less secure from all forms of insurgent and criminal predation," writes CFR's Micah Zenko." Being Honest About U.S. Military Strategy in Afghanistan, by Micah Zenko, February 9, 2017

“At worst, if terrorism is indeed rooted in the political pathologies of many Muslim societies, then military victories may not stay won unless those pathologies are cured – something that might take more energy and resources than this strategy would provide.”
Trump and Terrorism, US strategy after ISIS, Hal Brands and Peter Feaver, Foreign Affairs, March/April 2017

Taliban Take an Afghan District, Sangin, That Many Marines Died to Keep, NYT, TAIMOOR SHAH and ROD NORDLAND, MARCH 23, 2017

"Religions, especially, historically as well as currently, are recognized to be chronically implicated in this discord and violence, directed at those beyond their artificially defined boundaries of theological doctrine, and, as often, towards those claiming common religious identities but who have fragmented into sectarian factions and conflict (Mlodinow 2012, 164).

"Without the ceaseless pulsating heartbeat of our "categorization engine, we would understand nothing around us, could not reason in any form whatever, could not communicate to anyone else, and would have no basis on which to take any action. ....

every culture constantly, although tacitly, reinforces the impression that words are simply automatic labels that come naturally to mind and that belong intrinsically to things and entities"


Our current political/social elites dangerous ignorant policy=Our brave soldiers-citizens have suffered and died in Muslim cultural created battlefields to enable the same culture to continue to deliver the same at home and abroad. To continue, Why?

"The use of force and violence is more commonplace and prevalent in some families, communities, religions, cultural/ethnic groups and societies based on the views and values about adult prerogatives with children espoused. They may also be based upon the sociopathy of the perpetrators."
Treatment of Complex Trauma Courtois/Ford @2016
“Although religious hostilities affect countries throughout the world experience, Muslim-majority countries consistently have higher levels of a range of religious hostilities than other countries and by wide margins. For instance, Muslim-majority countries are more than three times more likely than other countries to have religion-related war, terror or sectarian violence, ...”
Pew Research 2012
"The culture in which one is immersed influences how one behaves towards others on all levels: and individual to another individual, as members of a group towards members of another group, as an individual or group member to the institutionalised social will. Implicit default assumptions about others influence individual cultural worldviews and habit which in turn shape the culture of child rearing that adults provide influencing the next generation and so on."
Neurobiology and the Development of Human Morality, Darcia Navais, 2014

"Just as cultural variation clearly dictates the language children eventually speak, cultural variation exerts significant and differential influences over mental, emotional, and social development of children. Every culture is characterized, and distinguished from other cultures, by deep-rooted and widely acknowledged ideas about how one needs to feel, think, and act as a functioning member of the culture. These beliefs and behaviors shape how parents rear their offspring. Culture helps to construct parents and parenting, just as culture helps to define mental health. Culture is also maintained and transmitted by influencing parental cognitions that in turn shape parenting practices. Whether culturally universal or specific, controls are in place to ensure that each new generation acquires culturally appropriate and normative patterns of beliefs and behaviors."
Parenting and child mental health: a cross-cultural perspective, Marc H. Bornstein, 3 October 2013

"A large body of research implicates families in the development and prevention of aggressive and violent behavior."
Family Influences on Aggression and Violence, Aggression and Violence: A Social Psychological Perspective, Labella, Madelyn H, Masten, Ann S, 2016

"Experiment 1 demonstrated that mothers had a significant impact on children's cognitive bias and fear. More precisely, children who had received a negative parental training displayed an increase in negative information search bias and fear, whereas children who had received a positive parental training showed an increase in positive information search bias and a decrease in fear. In Experiment 2, it was found that children's information search biases after working together with their mothers were predicted by their mothers' initial cognitive bias scores. These findings can be taken as support for the intergenerational transmission of cognitive biases from mothers to children."
Transmission of Cognitive Bias and Fear From Parents to Children: An Experimental Study,Danielle Remmerswaal, Peter Muris & Jorg Huijding, Pages 642-654, 06 Feb 2015

"Despite deeply conservative and gendered regulation, brutal violence, and widespread coverage of the group’s use of rape, more than 600 women have left Western countries to join Daesh. Researchers explain this recruitment primarily through women’s desire for romantic adventure, deception on social media, and anti-Western sentiment spurred by discrimination and violence in their home states. Using an original dataset of social media activity from seventeen Western female recruits between 2011-2015, we evaluate these arguments and offer a new explanation centered on a religious and political ideology that necessitates a physical hijra (migration) to Iraq or Syria. We find consistent evidence that anti-Western sentiment and ideological commitment drive women’s migration. This finding has valuable implications for counterterrorism policy and security studies, which tend to treat women’s mobilization as separate from general extremism. Our findings suggest female recruits should be taken seriously as motivated insurgents intent on establishing an Islamic caliphate."
Explaining Extremism: Western Women in Daesh, Meredith Loken University of Washington Anna Zelenz University of Washington, April 1, 2016

"There is a steadily growing body of evidence showing that parental modeling and threat information transmission can promote fear and anxiety in children."
Cognitive Bias as a Mediator in the Relation Between Fear-Enhancing Parental Behaviors and Anxiety Symptoms in Children: A Cross-Sectional Study, Lorraine Fliek, Pauline Dibbets,Jeffrey Roelofs,Peter Muris, Child Psychiatry & Human Development, February 2017, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 82–93

"The eight-year-old son of Australian ISIS terrorist Khaled Sharrouf has been filmed wearing a suicide vest and reciting threats to Australians. "
Son of Australian terrorist Khaled Sharrouf filmed wearing suicide vest, 9 News, April 30, 2017

"• Parents do not have the confidence to argue against the articulate and forceful activists who seek to impose their views, for fear of being branded as disloyal to their faith or their community."
Schools face new curbs on extremism after Birmingham Trojan horse affair Patrick Wintour, Political editor The Guardian, Wednesday 23 July 2014

''The mosques are our barracks,/the domes our helmets,/the minarets our bayonets,/ and the believers our soldiers.” Erdogan, December 1997,….

''Democracy is like a streetcar. When you come to your stop, you get off.'' Turkish Muslim: President Erdogan
The Erdogan Experiment, NYT, By DEBORAH SONTAG, MAY 11, 2003
"We find that aggression is generally not a maladjusted reaction typical of the socially marginal; instead, aggression is intrinsic to status and escalates with increases in peer status until the pinnacle of the social hierarchy is attained...

We also find that aggression is influenced not so much by individual gender differences as by relationships with the other gender and patterns of gender segregation at school. When cross-gender interactions are plentiful, aggression is diminished."

Status Struggles, Network Centrality and Gender Segregation in Same- and Cross-Gender Aggression, Robert Faris, Diane Felmlee, American Sociological Review, February 2011, vol. 76 no. 1 48-73

"The findings of the study indicate that citizens (Hofstede and Hofstede (2005)) of Islamic countries share similar cultural values that vary significantly with those of the Western countries."Conceptualizing the Islamic Personality Model, Abdul Kadir Othman, Muhammad Iskandar Hamzah, Nurhazirah Hashim, Faculty of Business Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 42300 Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

As a result of having 
'cultural values that vary so significantly with those of Other cultures' the culture develops a terror-genocide construct of Other-What happens, what always will happen?

"Children’s voices are heard “Defend Islam don’t be an infidel”"

" Hundreds of other men watched, holding their phones aloft to try to get a glimpse of the violence, but never making a move to intervene. Those standing by included several police officers.

..then the enraged men below her picked up poles and planks of wood, and hit at her until she lost her grip and tumbled down.

Her face bloodied, she struggled to stand. Holding her hands to her hair, she looked horrified to find that her attackers had yanked off her black hijab as she fell. The mob closed in, kicking and jumping on her slight frame….
Children’s voices are heard “Defend Islam don’t be an infidel”
Men deliberate “What to do with the body.
Overturned Verdict
“If it’s violence, who is responsible for this violence? The guy who started the episode and encouraged the people to hit her? The guy chanting slogans who encouraged the people? Was it a blow from a stick that killed her? A stone? Was it that she was burned, or was it the car running over her?””

Flawed Justice After a Mob Killed an Afghan Woman, New York Times, by Pulitzer Prize winner ALISSA J. RUBIN, DEC. 26, 2015

"Culture, of course, is related to violence in general and not only to structural violence. For example, culture influences the determination of "thresholds" which pressure on a person must overcome in order to move that person from being controllable, or even positive, to being negative (that is, into violence)."
The Culture of Violence, Chp 3. On the relationship between violence and culture - Galtung's concept

"It is very clear what I mean, which is that there is a violent, radical, fanatical, nihilistic interpretation of Islam by a faction … within the Muslim community that is our enemy, and that has to be defeated."  
Obama: To Stop Terrorism Islam Must Reconcile Itself To Modernity April 4, 2016 by Michael Stone
"..meta-analysis summarizes 113 research reports worldwide (121 cross-sectional and 7 longitudinal studies) on age differences in ethnic, racial, or national prejudice among children and adolescents. Overall, results indicated a peak in prejudice in middle childhood (5–7 years) followed by a slight decrease until late childhood (8–10 years)."
Development of ethnic, racial, and national prejudice in childhood and adolescence: A multinational meta
analysis of age differences, T Raabe, A Beelmann - Child development, 2011
Dutch Intelligence Agency Warns of Child Jihadists, By Associated Press, February 16, 2017
"In the Qur’an, Allah is described as ‘merciful’ and ‘compassionate’. Why do we find no reflection of that among jihadis who claim to struggle in his name? Jihadis only possess a pseudo sense of empathy. They may appear to be empathic but it is a narcissistic empathy, for they are only empathic within their own group; it does not extend anywhere into their external world as evidenced by their murderous destructive behaviors.[1] Their stoic, dissociated affect shows neither compassion nor remorse as their fellow brethren engage in wanton beheadings and executions. In shame honor societies where children are humiliated and laughed at for having feelings and emotionality, it is no wonder that the capacity for empathy did not develop during their early years. Research by neuroscientists and mental health experts has shown strong links between violence and early childhood."
Nobody Born a Terrorist, but Early Childhood Matters: Explaining the Jihadis’ Lack of Empathy, by Nancy Hartevelt Kobrin, 2016

France Doesn't Know What to Do With the 17000 People It Labels Potential Terrorists
, The Intercept, Dorothée Thiénot, May 6 2017  
"Religions, especially, historically as well as currently, are recognized to be chronically implicated in this discord and violence, directed at those beyond their artificially defined boundaries of theological doctrine, and, as often, towards those claiming common religious identities but who have fragmented into sectarian factions and conflict (Mlodinow 2012, 164). Those of us with an eye towards history—or even towards current events—know that any simple congruence of religion and prosociality has never been the case."
Pro-and assortative-sociality in the formation and maintenance of religious groups, LH Martin, D Wiebe, 2016

"..children raised in religious households, who are perceived to be more empathetic and sensitive to justice, are in fact less altruistic to their own class mates .... children from religious households also differ in their ratings of deserved punishment for interpersonal harm (F(2, 847) = 5.80, p < 0.01, h2 = 0.014); this was qualified by significantly harsher ratings of punishment by children from Muslim households than children from non-religious households (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between children from Christian households and non-religious households.".
The Negative Association between Religiousness and Children’s Altruism across the World, November 05, 2015

"..the correlation between marginalization or lack of integration and radicalization are not as robust as is commonly assumed (see Rahimi and Graumans 2015)..
We are hearing and giving more credence to the revolutionary, as opposed to the nihilistic, nature of the claims being made. The revolution in question, moreover, is one which fuses the interests of the person and their personal story with the larger cause and movement. ..
At the core of this difference in interpretational orientation, and hence explanation for what is happening, is our more forthright approach to the intensely religious discourse of the foreign fighters, and the ways they use religious ideas to comprehensively frame their experiences."

Talking to Foreign Fighters: Socio-Economic Push versus Existential Pull Factors, Lorne L. Dawson, Amarnath Amarasingam, and Alexandra Bain, July 2016

"POLICE swooped and arrested a doctor’s teenage son in Melbourne before bombs were found at his Greenvale home, foiling an “imminent terror plot”."

A friend of the arrested teen’s family said they were respectable, and did not believe he could have done wrong.

“(He has) no bad preacher. He is a very quiet boy. He cannot drive. His father is a doctor and cannot allow him to do anything wrong,” the friend said.

“He has to look after his son properly."

Police find homemade bombs, arrest teen in Greenvale anti-terror raids

"Behaviour of man arrested in Melbourne counter-terrorism raids improved after attending Islamic centre, father says.

Haidar attended the Al Furqan Islamic study centre and Harun Causevic started going there in July 2014.

Mr Causevic said the changes in his son were all positive.

“Before he started to pray, Harun was in the house aggressive, he broke [things], like a child. But after when he started to pray he really changed behaviour, 100 per cent,” he said.

“Now he was very good, always. Never, never yells, never, never do bad in house."

Father of suspect in counter-terrorism raid speaks EMMA YOUNGER The NewDaily Apr 19, 2015

"The outgoing governor of Jakarta has been sentenced to two years in prison for blasphemy and inciting violence.

Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, known as Ahok, was the first ethnic Chinese Christian to run Indonesia's capital, and the case was seen as a test of the country's religious tolerance.

He was accused of insulting Islam by referring to a verse in the Koran during a campaign speech."

Jakarta governor Ahok found guilty of blasphemy, BBC, 9-5-2017

"Jakarta. As the panel of five judges delivered the verdict condemning Jakarta Governor Basuki "Ahok" Tjahaja Purnama to two years in prison for blasphemy on Tuesday (09/05), they cited firebrand Islamist Rizieq Shihab as a Koranic authority.

Imprisoned twice for inciting violence, the leader of the Islamic Defenders Front (FPI) had until recently occupied the fringe of Indonesian society; his followers are regarded as thuggish vigilantes with a penchant for extremism and extortion.

His recognition by the court as a venerable Islamic theologian — and the court's verdict itself — highlights the rising influence of Islamist groups in Indonesia, the world's largest Muslim-majority country but one with a multi-religious constitution and a tradition of tolerance."

Blasphemy Verdict Sinks Jakarta Governor, Elevates Islamic Hardliner, Reuters, 18-5-2017

1,000 people vs 100,000 Muslims Tell me once again how it is only the 'few' extremist Muslims=terror against and political/social subjugation of Other

Statistics clearly proves, with the burning buildings broken bodies and lives along with the political/social subjugation of Other there is a pathology inherently associated with the Islamic-Muslim ideology which determines the 'moderate' peaceful and law abiding Muslim families, communities and institutions culpable for continuing to supply straight from their floors the 'few' altruistic aligners/punishers to utilise an Islamic/Muslim codex defined method of analogised terror-genocide against Other, and inevitably with such constructs of hate, terror against their own to keep fellow adherents aligned to the normative Islamic/Muslim moral-ethical-belief cluster constructs.

"Footscray Park (Australia), at the back of Flemington Racecourse on 17 July 2015...

“I just heard music and chanting ... Koranic verses that were against Westerners.”

Mr Hewitt said the verses were about “unbelievers” or kaffir, and that they broadly said “if you don’t follow Allah ... you shouldn’t be alive.”

He said the verses also made reference to defeating the Westerners.

They are currently facing a committal hearing in the Melbourne Magistrates Court, charged with making preparations for incursions into foreign countries to engage in hostile activities."

‘Tinny terror’ court hearing gets underway in Melbourne, The Australian, PIA AKERMAN, May 15, 2017

"The Budget reveals ASIO’s work was set “against a steadily worsening overall security and operational environment”, notably from extremists with Australian passports looking to return home to the country and those that never left but were inspired by events overseas to carry out attacks."
Budget 2017: ASIO can no longer guarantee safety from ‘generation of extremists’ Charles Miranda, News Corp Australia Network, May 9, 2017

Sending more citizens to their deaths, grief and mental anguish born of such an insane policy of pretending the Islamic/Muslim culture is not the very source of the evil which confronts our soldiers overseas, citizens at home, and sending more citizens will in anyway resolve the cultural war being played out right across the globe, when the very Muslim combatants in the war zones outside our borders and inside them come directly from so called Muslim 'moderate' peaceful and law abiding families, communities and institutions, who exist even in our own Australian-French-US-British-Belgian-German-.... neighborhoods, has to be determined as a gross betrayal and in the end such actions perpetrated by policy makers against their own citizens must not be forgotten nor excused, if we are to prevent such dangerous idiocy recurring so easily in the future.

“But there is another side to the ISIS menace, hidden in the most familiar of places: American cities and suburbs, where recruits live among unsuspecting relatives and neighbors, communicating with the terror group through social media.

...American law enforcement officials estimate that roughly 250 Americans have tried to join IS. Most of them never left the United States, raising fears of more homegrown attacks like the one in December in San Bernardino, California. ”
The Americans: 15 Who Left the United States to Join ISIS, by RICHARD ENGEL, BEN PLESSER, TRACY CONNOR and JON SCHUPPE

"unsuspecting" possibly for some, for who sees in their own cultural imbued prejudice the seeds of terror-genocide - rather than justified and authorised response to Others existence, yet Muslim culpability remains as the justification and authority for such actions of terror-genocide can be clearly identified in the Islamic/Muslim codex (text and exemplar (messianic) template) and in the symbols-words and actions carried out by those the Muslim 'moderate' peaceful and law abiding create and sustain.

“We .. see families not simply as behavioural systems, but as social structures organised around deeply tacit, and in part culturally rooted beliefs about the nature of language and the social world – beliefs that are themselves maintained in significant measure through patterns of familial communication (Applegate and Delia, 1980; Bernstein, 1974; Gecas, 1979; Grotevant, 1989; Lepper, 1983; Levine, 1989)
Most significantly, families (and parents within them) play a large role in imparting a logic – parallel to an economic theory, if you will – of how the social system works: of what social knowledge the child needs to acquire and how social knowledge, once acquired, can and should be used.”

Parental belief systems: The psychological consequences for children, (Sigel, McGillicuddy-DeLisi, & Goodnow, 2014)

"A large body of research implicates families in the development and prevention of aggressive and violent behavior."
Family Influences on Aggression and Violence, Aggression and Violence: A Social Psychological Perspective, Labella, Madelyn H, Masten, Ann S, 2016

'uncontroversial'. No more citizen-soldiers sacrificed to a lie. 

Only Strategy which is guaranteed to be successful in Afghanistan or anywhere the Islamic/Muslim culture exists -Change the Architect and Builder or Change Nothing.

Yes it will take time but otherwise all Western cultures are doing are Damascus fortressing their communities, pouring the bodies of their citizens and their wealth into a limitless Muslim cultural propensity to deliver terror not only against Other cultures but also their own. It’s the culture stupid doing what cultures do Dissimulating, Adapting, Discovering, Improvising, and Overcoming.

Trump’s ‘skepticism’ is justified.

To whom it may concern: Time for a Royal Commission to determine if it is possible for the Islamic/Muslim culture to ‘reconcile itself with modernity' so as to prevent terror-genocide against Other cultures

The following is indicative of a member of a culture creating terrorists as there is nothing wrong with the adherent’s codex creating the terrorists nor the development process the only tactic left is terror against terror -civil war or in the case of Islam internal bickering.

"There will be no dialogue with "extremists" in Libya, the country's eastern commander General Khalifa Haftar vowed in an exclusive interview with FRANCE 24 on Wednesday, saying that only "military solutions" could be used to defeat such groups."
Exclusive: Only 'military solutions' can stop extremists, says Libya's Haftar, France 24, 2017-07-27

Australian Historical view:

AFGHANISTAN: DANGEROUS NEUTRAL, Staff Sgt P. G. Gittins, Royal Australian engineers, Australian Army journal, January, 1960

“And who knows why with so much labour he builds  his house or how such things can give him pleasure? Like the dew on the morning glory are man and his house, who knows which will survive the other?” The Hojoki of Japan

The area now included within the state of Afghanistan, of which the mountain system of the Hindu Kush forms the backbone, lies across the land routes from the Middle East and South Central Asia into the attractively rich and fertile Indus Valley and the subcontinent of India. Historically, the recurring pattern of events over two thousand years at least was for the area of the Hindu Kush to be invaded from the west or the north, and then, generally after a brief pause, to be used as a base for the invasion of what is now Pakistan and India. The Indus Valley, whether rated by needy tribesman from the barren hills of Waziristan or threatened by heavy pressure from beyond the Hindu Kush, has generally been on the defensive.

For the possessors of the valley there has been no comparable prize to seek in the Hindu Kush or beyond: the mountains have simply been a rampart they needed to see in safe hands.

In these circumstances, and in the absence of any clearly defined “natural” frontiers, it was not until the eighteenth century that a sovereign state of Afghanistan emerged. Even then its existence was precarious until in the later part of the nineteenth century the diplomacy of Britain and Russia transformed it from a traditional springboard for southward invasion into a buffer state. Peace and opportunities for progress and internal development in Afghanistan have been assured only when as after 1880, and for most of the first part of the 20th century, the country has harboured no threat to its south-eastern neighbours.

The land and its peoples
The area of the kingdom of Afghanistan is approximately 250,000 mi², and its population in the region of 11,500,000. It consists basically of a high plateau traversed from east to west and south west by the formidable Western spurs of the Himalayan chain, the Hindu Kush range and its continuation, the Paropamisus mountains.

The country is in this way roughly divided into three main areas. The central, Eastern and South Eastern parts consist of high mountain spurs, the peaks of which decrease from over 20,000 feet in the east to 10,000 feet or less near Herat, an important population centre. Between these mountains lie fertile valleys. The north of Afghanistan is a fertile plateau continuous with the steps of Turkestan. Between the mountains of Afghanistan and those of its western neighbour, around, lies the third region: the deserts and semi deserts of Registan and Sistan. Through this area runs the river Helmand.

Over the high passes of the Hindu Kush and across the semi desert plateau of Western Afghanistan lie the routes by which caravans and armies have passed from the steppes and Central Asia to the fertile plains of the Indian subcontinent. Afghanistan has served, too, as the route linking Persia and Mesopotamia with both Central Asia and India.

Although traversed by trade routes, the physical obstacles of the terrain, the high mountains, deep valleys, and areas of barren desert have made difficult the establishment of a strong, closely knit state. The geographical disunity of the Afghanistan area has been paralleled by the racial diversity of the population. This diversity is a result of the constant ebb and flow of conquest and migration through the area, during which Greeks and Tartars, Scythians, Persians, and Sikhs have each for a time held all or part of the land. At present time the largest racial group of Afghanistan is that of the Pathans (Pashtun) or true Afghans, apparently of Turko–Iranian origin with some Indian admixture, who inhabit the central areas of the country. The Intro-Iranian language, Pushtu (or Pashtu), which they and several other tribes speak, has recently been made an official language alongside the more developed Persian. A second racial group is formed by the various tribes of Turkish origin, the Ghilzais, and the tribes inhibiting the northern steppe, such as the Uzbegs, the Turkmens and the Sards. The Tajiks, who inhabit the mountainous areas north and east of Kabul, the capital, are Persian speaking and of Persian racial origin, as are the settled population of Herat province and Sistan. Probable descendants of the conquering armies of long ago are the Mongoloid Hazaras from the area east of Kabul and the fair skinned Kaffirs of Noristan, who claimed to have come in remote times from the far west.

Production and Trade
Although cultivation is found only in the valleys and fertile plains, good crops of fruit, cereals and vegetables are raised. The asafoetida and castor oil plants are found in all parts, and good tobacco is grown in some areas. Sheep raising is an important industry, both wool and skins (especially Persian lamb skins) being exported. Cotton, too, is grown for export.

Coal, chrome and salt mind, but the considerable mineral wealth has still to be fully developed. Hydroelectric power is aiding the development of some industry and manufacturers. Since nineteen forty-nine, irrigation has been developed in the provinces of Kandahar and Herat.

The principal imports include machinery, textiles, rubber, tea and petrol. Much of Afghanistan’s trade is conducted with the Soviet Union. Kabul, the capital (population about 80,000) has factories for the production of matches, leather, boots, furniture, etc. Kandahar has also some industries, mainly weaving and carpet making.

Brief Historical Notes
For upwards of two thousand years the history of Afghanistan was that, not of a nation, but of a geographical area. A more or less regular cycle of events appears. Periodically conquerors appeared from over the Oxus and establish themselves on the northern slopes of the Hindu Kush. After a pause they passed through the mountains or outflanked their Western spurs until they reach the passes into India. After a short while they went on to the conquest of northern India. Then a split came between those who ruled in the warm plains of India and those who remained in the cold uplands and steppes of Afghanistan. Occasionally, when the peoples of Persia or India came under a strong leadership they asserted their sway up to and even into the mountains of the Hindu Kush.

Alexander the Great, marching from Persia to India in 329 BC, wintered near Kabul and founded the nucleus of a Greek empire which left its traces in the culture of the area and particularly in the self-governing walled villages of Bactria. In Bactria lay Balkh, in the heart of the great and civilised Kushan Empire (120 BC to 350 AD) under which Buddhism was brought to Afghanistan.

This Helleno–Buddhist civilisation was swept away in the 7th and 8th centuries by the proselytising armies of Islam. The religious conversion was thorough; today Afghanistan is a stronghold of Islam of the Sunni persuasion except for the Shia Hazaras. In their turn the Arabs were succeeded by the Mongols. In 1220 – 23 Genghis Khan laid waste Balkh, Herat, Kabul and Ghazni.

The rule of this Mongol dynasty lasted only a century and half. It yielded placed to the Turko- mongol dynasty is founded by Timur-i-Lang (Tamerlane) and Babur, of whose vast empires the Afghanistan area formed an outlying province.

It was from here that Babur descended to found the Mogul empire in the Indian subcontinent. Kabul and Kandahar remain for a time only provinces of Babur’s empire.

For a little over two hundred years (from 1526 until 1747) the land of the Afghans had been successfully a congeries of petty states, and centre of great empires ruled by foreigners, and a dismembered country, furnishing provinces to three monarchs. In 1737 Nadir Shah, one of Persia’s greatest monarchs, recovered Kandahar and conquered the Indian province of Kabul, but can ciliated the Afghans and enlisted many in his army – among them Ahmad Khan, a young chieftain of the Sadozai family of the Abdali tribe. Ahmad Khan rose to high rank in the Persian army, and after the assassination of Nadir Shah in 1747 was chosen by the Afghan chiefs at Kandahar as their leader and assumed the royal title. Afghanistan now became, for the first time, a distinct political entity, ruled by an independent native sovereign.

From 1747 until 1921, Afghanistan was the scene of numerous uprisings, assassinations, wars, and intrigue of every possible kind. Development was naturally retarded. Its geographical location made its friendship important to Britain, India, and Russia. It was – and still is – of great strategic importance.

The development of Afghan foreign relations
In 1919, Amanullah, a leader of the young progressive nationalists (the third son of the assassinated king Habinullah), was concerned to establish relations with other states and with Afghan participation in international affairs. The earliest diplomatic approaches were to Afghanistan is nearer neighbours, the USSR, Iran and Turkey.

The factors which conduce to the Anglo – Russian agreement of 1907 (that of border limitations) were, of course, no longer effective after 1917-18, and the Soviet government subsequently showed no hesitation in taking every opportunity to increase its influence in Afghanistan. On 28 February 1 921 a Russo – Afghan treaty was signed at Moscow which provided for formal diplomatic relations between the two states, the mutual recognition of Khivan and Bokhari independence. (Both being absorbed within the USSR in 1924 as parts of the “Republic” of Uzbekistan and the “Republic” of Turkestan) and for a number of conciliatory Soviet gestures towards Afghanistan. The Soviet government continued to strengthen its relations with Kabul by various methods, including offers of the services of Russian technicians (e.g., in the Afghan Air Force) and of technical facilities such as the training of Afghan pilots at Tashkent. Negotiations were also conducted between the two states in 1927 for the creation of the Kabul -ashkent air service and for a trade pact. In 1926 the provisions of the 1921 Russo-Afghan treaty were amplified but not superseded by a “pact of neutrality and nonaggression” concluded between the two governments on 31st August. A new treaty of “neutrality and nonaggression” was concluded on 24 June 1931.

In February 1921, Afghanistan signed a treaty of alliance with Turkey, and in June a treaty of “friendship and good relations” with Iran. Afghanistan also entered into treaty relations with a large number of other states both before and during the period 1927 – 28, when King Amanullah made a tour of many Asian and European countries, including a state visit to London. At about the same time Afghanistan became a party to a number of important international agreements, including the Red Cross Convention on sick and wounded combatants (1906), the universal Postal Union (1924) and the Kellogg pact (1928). In September 1934 Afghanistan was accepted as a member of the League of Nations.

Radical Reforms in the Overthrow of Amanullah
the innovations introduced by King Amanullah within Afghanistan were of a revolutionary character. Large-scale schemes for the building of trunk roads and for the creation of new capital city was started. Critics have held that they took insufficient account of the small size of the national income, and that at the same time practical needs such as the maintenance of law and order and the reform of taxation were neglected. More serious was the promulgation in 1923 of a new administrative code which was held to violate the cannons of Islam, and dislocated the already weak administration, and in 1924 of a decree introducing some measures of female education and emancipation. The outcome was the Khost rebellion of 1924 – 25, and although victorious, Amanullah had to yield to the Afghan Great Council (Loe Jirga), which recommended the abolition or amendment of a number of the most hated reforms.

The royal tour encouraged Amanullah to make further attempts to introduce Western ideas. In 1928 he placed before the Loe Jirga the outline of his proposed reforms: institution of a constitutional monarchy, Parliamentary government, Western dress, compulsory education for children, financial and currency reforms, and the suppression of the influence of the mullahs (preachers).

Opposition was universal, a rebellion broke out, and he fled to India.

Another king, Nadir, was elected, Law & Order was restored, and although Nadir’s reign was cut short after four years by assassination, his son was able to give the country a stable administration, sound finances, and a strong guiding hand to the cabinet of ministers.

Developments 1929 to 1957
since 1930, Afghanistan has been governed by a cabinet of ministers in which the royal family is strongly represented, assisted by an advisory council. The traditional Great Council (Loe Jirga), whose members are elected for life, meets only in exceptional circumstances. In local matters, however, many of the tribes exercise a measure of autonomy through the tribal councils. The system of law administered by the courts is the Hanafi code of Islamic law.

The Afghan government began in 1935 to put slowly into execution the policy of development laid down by Nadir Shah. The implementation of this policy has, of necessity, been slow, and on occasion unpopular. By nineteen thirty-nine hydroelectric installations had been built, textile mills and machinery for processing of cotton and sugarbeet erected, the northern coalfields partially developed, irrigation systems implemented, the construction of hospitals and the foundation of a medical faculty commenced, and the improvement of air and road communications. There are no railroads in Afghanistan.

In the period immediately after the Second World War shortages both of technical experts and of foreign exchange resources, resulting in great part from reduced exports of karakul lamb pelts, seriously affected the economic development of Afghanistan. An appeal was therefore addressed to the UN which resulted in a small preparatory mission going to Afghanistan in March – April 1950. This mission reported that since the government had already framed projects covering many fields of economic development, the main requirement was technical assistance at the operational level.

Since then the relevant specialised agencies of the UN (FAO, UNESCO, WHO, ILO, etc) have been giving technical assistance to Afghanistan in a number of fields. The most important of these have been the investigation of probable oil resources in the northern province, the establishment of improved air, road and radio communications, improved animal husbandry, disease and pest control, technical education and all aspects of health problems.

The USA is providing technical assistance in irrigation and drainage problems, soil, crop and related problems in the Helmand Valley, loans totalling 50,000,000 dollars, and assistance in the development of communications.

Foreign relations 1930 – 1957
It was under Turkish auspices that Afghanistan had become a member of the league of Nations. Relations between the two states became increasingly cordial, and Afghanistan turned to Turkey to help in such matters as the provision of military instructors and medical professors. In 1937 both states, together with Iraq and Iran, signed the Sa’adabad Pact of nonaggression.

Despite contact with Germany in the 1935 – 39., Afghanistan proclaimed and maintained its neutrality during World War II. In 1946 Afghanistan became a member of the UN, as well as a member of its specialised agencies.

Afghanistan’s principal external concern has nevertheless been relations with her southern and northern neighbours. Thus when it became clear during the Second World War that major constitutional changes were impending in the Indian subcontinent, Afghanistan was vitally interested. Its principal trade route lay through the port of Karachi, there were close linguistic and religious ties between the tribes on both sides of the Durand Line, and there was a considerable migration across the frontier. Furthermore, the Afghan government were concerned at the possible support to rebellious elements among the tribes of East Afghanistan which might come from the tribes east of the Durand Line if at any time they were not under firm control.

The partition of the Indian subcontinent did not change the status of the tribal areas. The then UK Secretary of State for Commonwealth relations (Mr. Noel Baker) said that with regard to the territories on the former NW frontier of India, it was the UK government’s view that “Pakistan is in international law the inheritor of the rights and duties of the old government of India… And that the Durand Line is the international frontier.” A plebiscite taken was in favour of Pakistan by 289,244 votes to 2,874. A series of tribal jirgas all meetings were held in the un-administered areas by the provincial governor during October 1947, and the tribes transferred to Pakistan their relationship to and obligations towards the governments of the UK and India, while Pakistan undertook to extend protection to them and to continue the allowances paid by the former government of India.

This settlement was unwelcome to the Afghan government, and since nineteen forty-seven a severe strain has been placed on the relations with Pakistan as a result of their officially conducted agitation in favour of the creation of a “Pathanistan” state (also called “Pusthunistan”). The essence of this claim is that the Pushtu speaking tribes in NW Pakistan, but not apparently those on the Afghan side of the frontier, should be given the opportunity to “opt out” and set up an autonomous state. The Soviet leaders express sympathy with Afghan policy on this issue during their visit to Kabul in 1955.

Afghan relations with Pakistan further deteriorated in 1955 following an incident in Kabul at the end of March, when a mob sacked and looted the Pakistan embassy and ambassadors residence and tore down and destroyed the Pakistani flag. This episode was not settled until the following September.

In November 1956 the Afghan Prime Minister visited Karachi (following a visit to Kabul in August by the Pakistan President), and it was stated afterwards that conversations had taken place in then “atmosphere of warmth and cordiality.” No advance appears to have been made, however, in the Pathanistan question.

Afghanistan – Russian relations
In relations between Afghanistan and her northern neighbour, the USSR, there have been important developments in recent years. There is little racial, religious or geographical distinction to be found between the dwellers on the north and south banks of the river Oxus, which constitutes much of the Russo – Afghan frontier. But it is an important factor that whereas the Afghan – Pakistani frontier region is rugged and economically a liability rather than an asset, the northern Afghan provinces of Maimana, Mazar–y–Sharif and Kataghan other source of much of Afghanistan’s wealth deriving from raising of karakul lambs, the growing of cotton, and the working of mineral deposits such as coal and sulphur. The Afghan government have in addition based considerable hopes for the development of the country on the exploitation of the oil resources believed to exist in these areas.

Arrangements had been completed in 1952 for an oil survey (including test drilling) by Western technicians working under the UN technical assistance administration. In August of that year, the Soviet Charge d’Affairs in Kabul informed the Afghan government that the employment of Western technicians on this work in northern Afghanistan would be regarded as an unfriendly act. In reply, although denying Soviet government’s right to interfere in Afghan internal affairs, the project was shelved.

On the other hand, there has been considerable development towards closer Russia – Afghan ties. A four-year commercial agreement was made in July 1950, and a Soviet trade agency is operating in Kabul. Since 1953, Afghanistan has accepted numerous Russian office of technical assistance. According to a Soviet broadcast on 7th September 1954, the current year had marked the beginning of a new stage in the development of Soviet technical aid to Afghanistan. Credit had been granted by the USSR for the building of grain silos and mills, for the construction of oil storage tanks, and for additional development of road, air and radio communications. In 1954, a Soviet cultural mission visited Kabul.

Mr Bulganin and Mr Khrushchev visited the country in December 1955, and in joint statements issued later it was announced that the 1931 Afghan-Soviet treaty of neutrality and nonaggression would be extended for ten years. It had been decided to “expand the friendly political, economic and cultural contacts” between the two countries. Representatives would meet to consider cooperation in developing agriculture, hydroelectric stations, irrigation systems, motor vehicle repair shops, and the reconstruction of the Kabul airport. The USSR agreed in principle to extend a long-term loan of 100,000,000 dollars for the development of Afghan economy, providing an agreement was signed at the end of January 1957.

American – Russian rivalry in Afghanistan
four years ago, the Russians moved into Afghanistan and set out to show their beneficence. The Americans had been in the country since the end of World War II: the Russians suddenly decided that anything the Americans could do they could do better.

The Afghans wanted sealed roads in Kabul, which for six months in the year was a bog heap, and for the next six months a dustbowl. They asked the Americans to build the roads, and the Americans had replied, correctly enough, that it was much better to reclaim the desert. The Russians built the roads – very good ones to – and put Russian buses and taxis on them. The Americans got Pan American Airways to bolster up the Afghan airline. The very day the contract was announced, the Russians revealed that they were building a very fine new airport at Kabul. The Americans made a fine colour film of Afghanistan – the Russians made an even better one. The Afghans wanted more bread, and the Americans tried to provide it with an irrigation project. The Russians built a bakery in Kabul and silos to store the wheat. The Americans complained that the Russians spread was full of stones, and that the streets melted in summer, but the Afghans like the bread and drove happily on the streets. Highly valued Persian lamb skins, once earning dollars, now began to earn roubles. Faithfully the Afghans kept the Russians out of their schools. They were determined there would be no communist subversion of the country. But when MIG fighters and helicopters arrived from the USSR for the Afghan Air Force, it was essential that cadets should receive their training in the Soviet Union.

A sort of Russian Colombo plan took technical students off to Soviet schools. None have gone to American schools. Afghanistan’s history of its relations with its neighbours has been a pretty sorry one. Today, many in Kabul feel that in the Soviet Union they have found a real friend.

Military developments in Afghanistan
The organisation of the army was based on a scheme formulated in 1917 for an establishment of six corps with HQ at Kabul (two corps), Jalabad, Matun, Herat, and Mazar–y–Sharif. Additional corps or divisions are now located at Kandahar, Ghazni, Urgun, Khanabad, and Gardez. Recruitment is on a voluntary basis and with some elements of compulsion, such quotas are allotted to areas. The total strength of the army in 1939 was about 60,000. This was raised during the World War II period, chiefly by the recall of discharged men, and it is probable that in the event of war numbers could be raised to 100,000 with 300,000 to 400,000 armed levees.

The forces are armed with modern weapons, including tanks. Military schools, once under Turkish supervision, are now staffed to some extent by Russian “advisers and technicians.” A certain amount of motor transport was purchased at the end of World War II, and this has been supplemented by Russian trucks. Thus the army’s mobility has been increased, and a reorganisation is in progress with the object of providing a central reserve at headquarters from which a mobile striking force could be furnished to support provincial troops.

In the country’s northern province, Soviet aid is transforming potholed Afghan roads into paved superhighways, including one that runs from the Russian rail heads and ports on the Oxus River, 390 miles south Kabul. US aid includes construction of some 500 miles of road from Kabul South and East to the Pakistan border. Although it was not intended that way, the roads will provide the Russians with a perfect network of all-weather roads running from the Oxus to the Khyber pass, the traditional invasion route into India from the north. A primitive country is not only being developed, it is being made strategically useful.

The presence of Russian troops in Afghanistan has been reported since 1954, but apparently little notice taken of it. However, reports from May, 1959, indicate that the Soviet has increased the number of troops there, and this is because the certain amount of tension and nervousness around Meshed, capital of Persia’s Khorasan province. From Afghanistan Russian troops could move forward to divide Persia from Pakistan, her neighbour in the Baghdad Pact. Troops and forward dumps of military equipment have been located at Herat, which straddles the main approach to Persia.

In Britain, the present Red Army penetration recalls fears of the Russians southward drive through Afghanistan, which haunted Queen Victoria’s Viceroy in India, Lord Curzon on, nearly a century ago.

A small Air Force is in existence once again supplemented by Russian “advisers and technicians,” MIG fighter planes, and Ilyushin jet bombers. More significant, a network of air feels has been constructed in northern Afghanistan, greatly reducing bomb arranged to Tehran, capital of anti-Communist Iran, and Karachi, capital of anti-Communist Pakistan. Scarcely 40 miles from the capital, lies the huge new Pagram airfield, with runways long enough to take Russia’s biggest jets.

The inaugurator and chief manipulator of the Afghanistan’s “profitable” neutrality is tough Prime Minister Mohammed Daoud. He took over the premiership some six years ago, and deals with everything from high policy to trivial administrative details. He claims his objective is to improve the lot of his people to the point where they can choose the kind of government they wish.

Mohammed Daoud’s avowed excuse for his close relations with the Soviet Union is that he needs support in his running quarrel with his neighbour Pakistan over “Pusthunistan” in point of fact, his “reckless neutrality” clearly rests on his belief that by cashing in on Cold War rivalries he can push Afghanistan’s development at a rate the country could never afford by itself. To the occasional warnings he is given by his ministers he replies, with all the confidence of a high wire performer, “I will personally guarantee that everything will come out all right.”

For a hundred years the British Raj preserved Afghanistan as a buffer state between Russia and India. Then the British Empire folded. Afghanistan, a victim of the vacuum thus created, has now passed the Communist point of no return.


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